ESOL Gramatika Výslovnost Testy Kurz 60 Texty Idiomy Nápovědy Angličtina

Peaceable or peacefull

Explanation PEACEABLE: to avoid strife ~~~ PEACEFUL: serene, tranquil
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Historic or historical

Explanation HISTORIC is something important in history; HISTORICAL is anything that took place in the past.
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Business Email - salutations

  • One person w/name, gender, & personal title preference known
    Dear Mr. Martin, Dear Mrs. Sullivan, Dear Ms. Carrick, Dear Miss Reed
  • One person w/name known but gender not known
    Dear Shannon Green, Dear J. B. Luce
  • One person w/name not known but gender known
    Dear Madam (or just plain Madam, which is more formal), Dear Sir (or Sir, which is more formal)
  • One person w/name and gender not known
    Dear Sir or Madam (or Sir or Madam, which is more more formal), Dear Madam or Sir (or Madam or Sir, which is more formal)
  • One Woman w/personal title preference unknown
    Dear Ms. O'Hara or Dear Carolyn O'Hara (style guides recommend respecting the woman's preference if known. If unknown, use Ms. or just omit the title).
  • Two men
    Dear Mr. Smith and Mr. Jones
  • Two women
    Dear Ms. Smith and Ms. Jones/Mrs. Smith and Mrs. Jones/Miss Smith and Miss Jones/Miss Smith and Ms. Jones/Mrs Smith and Miss
  • Woman and man (no personal relationship)
    Dear Ms./Mrs./Miss Smith and Mr. Jones or Mr. Smith and Ms./Mrs./Miss Smith
  • Organization composed entirely of men - Gentlemen:
  • Organization composed entirely of women - Ladies: or Mesdames:
  • Organization composed of men & women - Ladies and Gentlemen: or Gentlemen and Ladies:
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Biannual, biennial and semiannua

Explanation "Biannual" and "semiannual" both mean twice a year. But "biennial" means once every TWO years. Recommendation is following (to avoid confusion): Use "semiannual" instead of "biannual," and "once every two years" instead of "biennial."
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Explanation Use EACH OTHER when 2 things/people are involved; use ONE ANOTHER when more than two are involved
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Business Email Tips

  1. If you need to provide background for the message, do it briefly.
  2. Try to keep messages focused on a single topic, but if you can't, put each topic in a separate paragraph and use some kind of a heading to indicate which is which.
  3. If you have a number of questions, consider putting them in a list so they stand out, as opposed to including them in a paragraph with other text.
  4. The tone of your message is important. If in doubt that the message reflects what you want it to, try reading it from the recipient's point of view. If still in doubt, let it sit for awhile. Sometimes the best thing you can do is save an email written in anger or in defensiveness. Definitely let it sit at least 24 hours.
  5. Never write something critical about another and send it off unless you're willing to see it in the New York Times, on CNN, or on a subpeona. You get the picture. Sometimes you absolutely must keep your thoughts confidential, no matter what the temptation.
  6. Abbreviations (BTW, LOL, IMHO, etc.): use only in informal messages.
  7. Smileys, etc.: use only in informal messages.
  8. Web address in message itself: provide the complete URL to make sure the recipient can access the site.
  9. Editing and proofing: it's up to you to make sure the message is okay. Reading aloud might help.
  10. Closing: If you have one, begin on the second line below the message's end. Match your closing to your opening. If you didn't have a salutation, you don't need to use a closing. If you used a first name in the salutation, end with your first name. If you used a salutation like Hello or Dear Jody, then use an informal closing like Best regards or Best. If you used a formal salutatation, close with Sincerely.
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Viola, Viola, or Voila?

  1. A viola (vee-oh-lah) is a stringed instrument that is larger than a violin and smaller than a 'cello.
  2. A viola (vye-oh-lah) is a tiny flower.
  3. "Voila!" (vwah-lah) is an interjection that is "used to call attention, to express satisfaction or approval, or to suggest an appearance as if by magic."
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Criteria, phenomena

Explanation "Criteria," like "phenomena," is a plural word; "criterion," like "phenomenon," is a singular word." "Data" and "media" are the same whether singular or plural. Usually.
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Plurals/Possessives of Compound Nouns

Explanation Form most plurals of compound nouns by pluralizing basic part of/word: attorneys general; vice presidents. "Most dictionaries will give variant spellings of compound plurals," says Professor Charles Darling. "When you have more than one truck filled with sand, do you have several truckfuls or trucksful? The dictionary will give you both, with the first spelling usually preferred. (And the same is true of teaspoonfuls, cupfuls, etc.) The dictionary will help you discover that only one spelling is acceptable for some compounds — like passersby."
Professor Darling then says, "For hyphenated forms, the pluralizing -s is usually attached to the element that is actually being pluralized: daughters-in-law, half-moons, mayors-elect."
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Explanation Conjunctions join words, phrases, and clauses. Coordinating conjunctions include and, but, for, nor, either, neither, yet, so, so that. Subordinating conjunctions join two clauses (main and dependent/subordinate), and include although, because, since, until, while, etc.
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Business Email Tip

Tip Keep your message as brief as possible. This is common courtesy. Use short, single-spaced paragraphs. Big, bulky paragraphs are very difficult to read, especially online. No need to indent each paragraph, but do use an extra line between paragraphs. Treat your readers as if they were royalty.
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Explanation It's "rein." Merriam-Webster's says it's unrestricted liberty of action or decision." The Cambridge Dictionary of Idioms says "free rein" is synonymous with "allow" and "give." If you give people, ideas, or a horse free rein, they are free to develop without the intrusion of controlling elements.
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It's or Its?

Explanation It's means It is or It has. It's time to go. The possessive form (unlike so many words) is NEVER written with an apostrophe: "Its title is" - "What is its value?"
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Wrong or wrongful

Explanation The two terms aren't interchangeable. "Wrong" (a noun) means "immoral" or "unlawful," and also means "improper, incorrect, unsatisfactory." So you say, "It's wrong to tell a lie," or "The girl's answer was wrong."
"Wrongful" (an adjective) can mean "unjust," or "unfair," or "unsanctioned by law, having no legal right." So you say "That was wrongful conduct," or "She made wrongful demands of the school."
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Councillor or Counselor?

Explanation A councillor is a person who sits on a council (city council). A counselor is someone who gives advice.
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When two subjects are joined with "AND"

Explanation If a subject with two or more parts is joined by "and," is it a compound? Almost always, says Diana Hacker, in A Writer's Reference (G1-c). However, there are exceptions. When the parts of the subject form a single unit (His natural ability and his desire to serve his country have led to a career in the military.) or when they refer to the same person or thing, treat the subject as singular.
Examples, tips In precise usage, "acronym" refers only to terms based on the initial letters of their various elements, and read as single words (AIDS, NATO); "initialism" refers to terms read as a series of letters (BBC, ATM); and "abbreviation" is used for both acronyms and initialisms.
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"A" or "An" preceding abbreviation

Explanation When an abbreviation follows an indefinite article, the choice of "a" or "an" is determined by the way the abbreviation would be read aloud, says Chicago Manual of Style (15.9). Acronyms are read as words, it says, except when used as adjectives, and are rarely preceded by "a," "an," or "the." Initialisms are read as a series of letters and are often preceded by an article.
Examples, tips In precise usage, "acronym" refers only to terms based on the initial letters of their various elements, and read as single words (AIDS, NATO); "initialism" refers to terms read as a series of letters (BBC, ATM); and "abbreviation" is used for both acronyms and initialisms.
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Their or they're

belonging to; possessive of "they"
at, or in that place
combination of "they are"
Examples Their business is located there, but they're not in at the moment.
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Separate and Joint Possession

To indicate separate possession, add the apostrophe to each individual's name. Examples:
  • The winner's and the loser's comments.
  • The Vorfelds' and the Kimballs' houses.
If any names are replaced by a possessive pronoun, reword if necessary, e.g., "my and the buyer's signatures" is awkward. Try "the buyer's and my signatures" or "the seller's signature and mine."
To indicate joint (or common) ownership, add the apostrophe to the final name only. Examples:
  • The Johnsons and the Lintners' property.
  • Jack and Judy's business.

Tip: Always follow a company's preference, even if it differs from the rules.

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Councillor or Counselor?

Explanation A councillor, says CMS15, is a person who sits on a council (city council). A counselor is someone who gives advice.
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using ellipsis Marks ...

Explanation Ellipsis marks (...) are three spaced periods, with one space before and after each period. As a general rule, says Gregg's Reference Manual, don't use ellipsis marks in place of a period at the end of a sentence, but they may be used to indicate that a sentence trails off before the end. Ellipsis marks are often used in advertising to display individual items (similar to bulleting) or to connect a series of loosely related phrases.
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using "a" or "an" before acronyms and initialisms and before certain sounds

Explanation When an abbreviation (this includes acronyms and initialisms) follows an indefinite article (like "a" or "an"), the choice is made by the way the abbreviation would sound if spoken aloud.
Acronyms (words like NATO, radar, or snafu that are formed from the initial letter or letters of each of the successive or major parts of a compound term) are spoken and read as words unless used adjectivally, like "a HUD program." They're rarely preced by "a," "an," or "the."
Initialisms are generally spoken and read as a series of letters and are often (but not always) preceded by an article, e.g., a NATO member, an HTML document, an MS symptom.
Use "a" before any word beginning with a consonant sound (a usual response). Use "an" before any word beginning with a vowel sound (an office) (an honorary degree). An initialism (whose letters are sounded out individually, like BBC and USA) may be paired with one article, while an acronym (which is pronounced as a word) beginning with the same letter is paired with the other (an HTML document describing a HUD program).
The indefinite article "a" (not "an") is used in American English before words beginning with a pronounced "h." Examples: a hotel, a history lesson, a hopeful sign.
Before an abbreviation, symbol, or numeral, one uses "a" or "an" depending on how the term is pronounced.
Examples an MS treatment (a treatment for multiple sclerosis) ...a MS in the library (MS also stands for manuscript) NBC anchor ...a CBS anchor ...a URL 800 number @ sign
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when not to use the word "lady"

Explanation According to The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th edition, it's best to use the word "lady" or its plural only in conjunction with the word "gentlemen." Why? It's considered by many to be patronizing to say "lady" as a synonym for "woman." CMS says that some will insist on using it to describe a refined woman, but if they've read the CMS caveat, they've been forewarned.
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On behalf/in behalf

Explanation "in behalf" means in the interest of or for the benefit of, while "on behalf" means you're acting as an agent or representative of something.
Examples In: The decision is in behalf of the patient.
On: On behalf of Mr. Scott, I would like to express heartfelt thanks.
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Punctuation: exclamation point

Explanation Where to place the quotation marks if there is an exclamation point in the quotation instead of a period?
Colons, semicolons, question marks and exclamation points all follow closing quotation marks UNLESS a question mark or exclamation point belongs within the quoted matter. CMS gives this example:
Examples "Where are you from?"
The race starts when someone yells, "Go!"
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"A" or "an" before "h"

Explanation Q. Why is "an historical" said, rather than "a historical"?

A. For quite a few years, many journalists said "an historical," and it caught on. But it is not accepted by the major style guides, including Associated Press Stylebook 2003.

As "A Writer's Reference" (Hacker) says, "If the h is silent, the word begins with a vowel sound, so use 'an': an hour, an heir, an honest senator, an honorable deed. If the h is pronounced, the word begins with a consonant sound, so use 'a': a hospital, a hymn, a historian, a hotel."
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years, year's or years'

Explanation For plural nouns ending in -s, add only an apostrophe.
Examples It gives "six days' vacation" as an example.
Go with ...nine years'...
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Explanation "good" is an adjective and "well" is an adverb
Examples Professor Brians says that you do something well, but you give someone something good. The exception he notes, is verbs of sensation in phrases such as "the pie smells good," or "I feel good."
Some people think you should never say "I feel good", but Brians says "Despite the arguments of nigglers, this is standard usage. Saying 'the pie smells well' would imply that the pastry in question had a nose. Similarly, 'I feel well' is also acceptable, especially when discussing health;but it is not the only correct usage."
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i.e. (id est.) & e.g. (exempli gratia)

Explanation You use i.e. when you mean "that is." You also use it when you're restating the idea (to be more explicit) or expanding upon it.
You use e.g. when you mean "for example."
In American English, one generally follows i.e. and e.g. with a comma.
Examples We provide all retailers with the standard discount, i.e., 10%.
Shertzer's book has a number of elements, e.g., punctuation, capitalization, parts of a sentence, and confusing words.
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  1. make suggestions
  2. make offers
  3. make requests for advice
  4. as a tag
  1. Shall we go to the pub?
  2. Shall I open the window?
  3. What shall we do?
  4. Let's leave that until the next meeting, shall we?
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should have

Explanation When we want to criticise something which was or was not done in the past.
Examples You should have told me you were coming.
You shouldn't have agreed to do that.
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timetabled events

Explanation When we want to talk about TIMETABLED events in the future, we use the Present Simple.
Examples The train leaves at 5.00.
The movie starts at 8.00.
I don't have school tomorrow because the teachers are on strike.
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personal arrangement

Explanation When we want to talk about a PERSONAL ARRANGEMENT we have already made for the future we use the Present Continuous.
Examples I'm meeting Simon for lunch. (I've already arranged this with him.)
I'm working late this evening. (My boss has asked me.)
I'm not working tomorrow. (I've aranged to have the day off.)
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could have

  1. the possibility/ability/opportunity for something to happen in the past existed but was not taken
  2. it is possible that something has happened but we do not know if it has or hasn't. We are guessing
  3. to speculate about a future event
  1. You could have phoned to let me know. (You didn't.)
    I was so hungry I could have eaten a horse. (I didn't!)
    What you did was dangerous. You could have been killed. (You weren't.)
  2. They're late. I suppose they could have got lost.
    Whatever could have happened?
  3. Keep looking. By this time next week, you could have found the house of your dreams.
    They're late. By the time they arrive, everyone could have left.
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may not × can't

Examples He may not have known. (this means that perhaps he knew, perhaps he didn't.)
He can't have known. (this means that we are certain that he didn't know.)
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must × have to

Explanation We use "must" for an obligation imposed by ourselves and "have to" for an obligation imposed by somebody else.
Examples I must get my hair cut. (I think it is too long.)
- You're in the army now. You have to get your hair cut. (Or you'll be in trouble.)
Explanation In the past, we use 'must have done' to express our CERTAINTY about a past action.
We use "had to" to express a PAST OBLIGATION.
Examples He's not there. He must have gone out.
I cannot find my wallet. I must have left it at home.
I had to leave home early today because of the bus strike.
I had to agree to his demands.
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had better

Explanation This is not a past form nor a comparison. It usually refers to the immediate future.
It is used to give advice or a warning.
We can also use 'should' or 'ought to' to give advice but the meaning is slightly different. We use 'had better' where there is a strong suggestion that the action will be done.
Examples You ought to apologize. (you may or you may not)
You had better apologize. (I think you may)
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used to

Explanation We use 'used to' to talk about HABITS or STATES that existed in the past but not now.
Examples I always go swimming on Fridays. (HABIT NOW)
I used to go swimming but I stopped. (HABIT PAST)
I used to be thin but now I'm fat. (STATE PAST)
I used to go to school over there.
I didn't used to smoke but I do now.(USUAL)
I used not to smoke but I do now.(FORMAL)
Did you use to like to play sport at school? (USUAL)
Used you to like to play sport at school.(FORMAL)
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going to

Explanation We often use GOING TO to talk about PLANS and INTENTIONS for the future.
Examples I'm going to get a new car.
I'm going to leave here at the end of the month.
Explanation We also use GOING TO to make predictions when there is PRESENT EVIDENCE.
Examples Look at the black clouds, it's going to rain.
He's driving too close to the car in front. He's going to have an accident.
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